CBD Therapy: The plant Cannabis is Sativa (Cannabis)
Is home to over 100 chemicals with the same chemical structure, also known as cannabinoids. The main psychoactive compound in Cannabis is D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC), responsible for the main effects associated with the use of the plant.
In the multitude of cannabinoids found in Cannabis, Our research team has concentrated on CBD as a compound that does not cause the usual positive effects in marijuana users’ minds.
Since 1970, our research group has published several research papers that have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of CBD in various animals model models for neuropsychiatric disorders and conducted clinical trials on humans.
CBD Therapy: The first time we tested the anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties of CBD in animals was in the 1970s and 80s and in the human population and with some promising outcomes.
Alongside anxiety and psychosis research, basic and clinical research on the other ways to treat ailments with CBD has been conducted. Additionally, the patentable synthetic analogues of CBD that are highly effective for sharing knowledge to the production sector are being created to provide the possibility of advantages for patients suffering from various health issues.
The review’s objective is to present the most significant contributions made to the advancement of the therapeutic benefits of CBD in neuropsychiatry, mainly conducted by Brazilian researchers.
These contributions led to a shift in the perception of CBD as a cannabinoid that is inactive to a medication with multiple effects.
The studies mentioned in this review were chosen based on searches conducted on the databases online PubMed, Web of Science and ScieELO for research papers on the therapeutic benefits of CBD (“cannabidiol” has been employed as a keyword).
CBD’s ability for calming is possibly its most well-known result and is the reason why CBD’s use is so widespread.
CBD Therapy: A study from 2017 published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry examined the anxiety of 57 males during a mock public speaking test. Most of them received a placebo, and others received 150 milligrams, 300 milligrams, 300 milligrams or 600 milligrams CBD prior to their speech. Participants receiving 300 milligrams of CBD experienced significantly fewer anxieties during the tests than those receiving placebo. It was interesting to note that those who received 300 or 600 milligrams CBD were more anxious in the course of the test than the 300 milligrams.
In addition, at least one research study on mice showed CBD produced effects similar to imipramine, an antidepressant. Human studies are required, however, to determine the possibility that CBD could trigger the same antidepressant effect in our body.
In certain instances, CBD may be utilized to treat epileptic seizures.
In the year 2018, The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of CBD under the brand name Epidiolex to treat seizures that result from Lennox Gastaut syndrome as well as Dravet syndrome, two rare forms of epilepsy that are only available to patients who are at least two years old.
Three well-tested studies form the foundation for this FDA’s choice. In these studies, 516 patients suffering from Lennox Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome were treated with either Epidiolex or an alternative. Epidiolex is a medication that, when used in conjunction with other medications prescribed, reduces the frequency of seizures compared to placebo.
CBD Therapy: In a study of limited size in 2018 published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, eleven patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) took CBD in conjunction with regular psychiatric treatments for eight weeks at an outpatient psychiatric facility. Ten of them experienced decreased PTSD symptoms. CBD was generally well-tolerated, according to the research.
If THC and CBD combine to create what’s known as”an “entourage effect,” complementing their benefits and potency. For instance, using the same dose of THC and CBD will reduce THC’s “high” from THC, and a tiny amount of THC coupled with more CBD can enhance CBD’s effects.
Arthritis causes the degeneration of the tissues that are located in and around joints. There are many types of arthritis. The symptoms can include stiffness, pain and loss of movement. Treatment for arthritis typically focuses on the relief of joint pain and improved functioning.
A study in 2006 revealed that Sativex, a CBD-based plant-based drug that was approved within the United Kingdom in 2010–promoted statistically significant improvements in the quality of rest, pain movement, and pain during rest for people suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis when compared with placebo.
This was the very first study conducted in a controlled manner of Sativex in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, which involved more than 58 patients. CBD was discovered to have an effect on pain relief, in addition to the capacity to inhibit the progression of the disease.
In the year 2018, in an investigation of more localized treatments, the researchers gave an artificial CBD gel in 250 milligram or 500-milligram doses per day or as a placebo to patients suffering from knee pain caused by osteoarthritis. Patients also stopped taking other painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs except for Acetaminophen prior to and during the research period.
The results were intriguing but not conclusive. One thing is for certain, people who were treated with CBD didn’t experience any changes in pain when compared to placebo-treated patients.
However, there were statistically significant differences between the patients who received the 250-milligram dose and the control group, taking into account the average weekly improvement of their highest pain levels as well as the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Score) physical function ratings. In addition, males appeared to gain from CBD more than women in this study.
CBD Therapy: Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that CBD is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. These properties are believed to offer significant neuroprotection or protection from a range of diseases that are pathological.
A number of preclinical studies have suggested that CBD could have beneficial actions against Parkinson’s disease Multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The brain ischemia and Huntington’s diseases were studied, however significant positive results weren’t reported. Further clinical studies are required to verify CBD’s advantages in the treatment for these diseases.
Tests on human cells revealed that CBD aids in reducing the negative effects of elevated glucose levels on other cells of the body. This typically is the precursor to the growth of diabetes and its complications.
Researchers concluded that, with further research, CBD could have significant benefits for those suffering from the condition of diabetes, diabetic issues, and plaque buildup on the walls of arteries.
In a different study, 13 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes that wasn’t taking insulin were treated with both CBD as well as placebo (in instead or in addition to insulin).
Researchers discovered CBD reduced the levels of resistance in (which creates an inability to bind insulin protein, which regulates the levels of sugar) and raised their levels of glucose-dependent, insulinotropic Peptide (a hormone that allows for the release of insulin in digested foods) in comparison to their baseline levels prior to the time they began the test.
The results suggest CBD may be a natural treatment for diabetes, as it helps the body to regulate the levels of hormones related to insulin.
CBD Therapy: In 2005, Canada approved the use of Sativex, an oromucosal (absorbed in the lining of the mouth) spray with equal proportions of THC and CBD, for the treatment of multiple sclerosis-related central neuropathic pain. In 2007, Canada approved the medicine’s use again for cancer pain that proved unresponsive to other medications.
Meanwhile, continued studies in the U.S. indicate CBD is effective in treating chronic, non-cancer pain. In one 2020 study, researchers administered CBD topically to a group of patients with symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (a result of brain nerve and spinal cord nerve damage) while another group with the same condition received a placebo. Results showed a significant reduction in intense, sharp pains and cold, itchy sensations in those who used the topical CBD compared to those who used the placebo. No participants reported adverse side effects.
When introduced topically, CBD oil doesn’t affect the systemic issue as it might if it were introduced directly into the bloodstream. Instead, topical CBD is more localized and treats pain in a certain area. Since it’s more direct, it may have a more pronounced effect.
ALS- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a condition which causes nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain to degrade, leading to the loss of muscle control, which gets worse with time. It’s still unclear the reason ALS is present, though it may be genetic in certain cases.
There is no cure for ALS, and there are just two FDA-approved drugs to combat ALS symptoms.
CBD Therapy: Researchers have found that people suffering from ALS might benefit from the effects of the entourage that is created through the combination of CBD and THC, which is similar to those suffering from PTSD.
In a study conducted in 2019, participants received a mix of THC and CBD in different doses based on their requirements and preferences.
Patients who suffer from mild, moderate and severe spasticity (muscle stiffness and tightness) caused by ALS were found to have great satisfaction with the treatment.
Those who suffer from severe to moderate spasticity reported higher levels of satisfaction over those with mild spasticity.
For Opioid Addiction
In a study of limited size in 2018 published in the JournalJournal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, eleven patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) took CBD in conjunction with regular psychiatric treatments for eight weeks at an outpatient psychiatric facility. Ten of them experienced decreased PTSD symptoms. CBD was generally well-tolerated, according to the research.
If THC and CBD combine to create what’s known as”an “entourage effect,” complementing their benefits and potency. For instance, using the same dose of THC and CBD will reduce THC’s “high” from THC, and a tiny amount of THC coupled with more CBD can enhance CBD’s effects. The “entourage effect” is why CBD oil may be much more effective than isolated, THC-dominate strains of cannabis in treating conditions like PTSD.
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cbd on patients with ptsd by using cbt interventions,” wrote researchers in their project summary. “Thorough cbd cbt controls were applied in this study, which may have valuable implications for the treatment of ptsd.”
“This preliminary study demonstrated that cbd provides a safe and effective strategy for treating ptsd in Chinese people,” they added later. “Thorough qc can be employed in future studies, including studies on large populations of ptsd patients.”
The researchers concluded that their findings are promising but only suggest CBD’s efficacy. A larger trial is necessary to draw conclusions about CBD’s effect on PTSD. They also stress that CBD’s effects on anxiety are still largely unknown.
Summary: CBD Therapy
CBD is becoming increasingly popular as a natural, non-toxic treatment for many common ailments. One study found that topical use of the cannabinoid reduced pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy; this result has not been previously reported and may be related to placebo effect or other confounding factors.
The lack of adverse effects suggests CBD should be considered an alternative therapy for those experiencing chronic pain. More research will need to be done before definitive conclusions can be reached about its effectiveness on different types of conditions.